law, natural

law, natural
   Natural-law theories in ethics are theories that the moral standards that govern human behaviour are derived from the nature of rational creatures. These theories take their origin from Thomas Aquinas, who defines natural law as the rational creature's participation in the eternal law, which Aquinas says is God's way of government. The natural law also constitutes the basic principles of practical reason for all rational creatures, binding on, and knowable to some degree by, all. Aquinas states that the first precept of the natural law is that good is to be done and pursued, and evil is to be avoided; and that every action has goodness in so far as it pursues the good, whereas it is lacking in goodness, and thus is said to be evil, in so far as it is lacking in pursuit of the good. It is possible to group together the various ways in which actions might pursue or fail to pursue the good; these classifications will then yield the types of action that are good and the types that are bad. There are also naturallaw theories in the philosophy of law; these hold that the law gets its authority from the fact that many of its demands are codifications of moral demands. A leading contemporary theorist in both domains is John Finnis. Critics have charged that natural-law theories commit the 'is'/'ought' fallacy, that is, the (alleged) fallacy of moving from purely factual premises to an evaluative conclusion.
   Further reading: Aquinas 1963-80; Finnis 1980; Lisska 1996; Oderberg and Chappell 2004

Christian Philosophy . . 2015.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Law, Natural — • In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, meaning the order which governs the activities of the material universe. Among the Roman jurists natural law designated those instincts and emotions common to man… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • law, natural —    This term refers to that part of the moral law that can be known through human reason and so is said to be inscribed on the human heart …   Glossary of theological terms

  • natural law — n: a body of law or a specific principle of law that is held to be derived from nature and binding upon human society in the absence of or in addition to positive law ◇ While natural law, based on a notion of timeless order, does not receive as… …   Law dictionary

  • natural — nat·u·ral adj 1: based on an inherent sense of right and wrong natural justice see also natural law, natural right 2 a: existing as part of or determined by nature …   Law dictionary

  • law — / lȯ/ n [Old English lagu, of Scandinavian origin] 1: a rule of conduct or action prescribed or formally recognized as binding or enforced by a controlling authority: as a: a command or provision enacted by a legislature see also statute 1 b:… …   Law dictionary

  • law, natural —  Закон естественный …   Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов

  • natural person — n: a human being as distinguished from a person (as a corporation) created by operation of law compare juridical person, legal person Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996 …   Law dictionary

  • natural right — n: a right considered to be conferred by natural law James Madison...distinguished natural rights, such as life and liberty, from rights that are part of the compact between citizen and government L. H. Tribe Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law.… …   Law dictionary

  • natural object — n: a person likely to be the recipient of some thing or action; esp: a person who is close to or related to a person dying whether testate or intestate, who would reasonably be expected to receive a share of the estate, and who may be so… …   Law dictionary

  • natural child — n. A child that is related to his or her parents by blood, not adoption. The Essential Law Dictionary. Sphinx Publishing, An imprint of Sourcebooks, Inc. Amy Hackney Blackwell. 2008. natural child n. A biologi …   Law dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”